The Hero 359 Fountain Pen

A bunch of Lamy Safari & Hero 359 fountain pens - Can you tell the difference?
A bunch of Lamy Safari & Hero 359 fountain pens – Can you tell the difference?

Recently, an FPN member asked whether there were fake or replica Lamy Safari fountain pens. In reply, another FPN member who also belongs to our club (and who shall remain anonymous (except to say that he takes great pictures)) replied, “Never heard of a fake Safari. Why would anyone create a counterfeit of a $25 pen? Sure, some of the limited edition colors can go for more than that but where’s the profit?”

Well, there as it turns out, there is a “fake” Safari – the Hero 359 fountain pen made by the Shanghai Hero Pen Company (Hero Pen). Hero Pen was founded in 1931 as the Huafu Pen Factory and was renamed in 1966 to its current name. The company has manufactured a number of relatively inexpensive brands of fountain pens including Hero, Wing Sung, and Xinhua, just to name a few. Like many Chinese companies, it has copied or cloned the design of Western fountain pens, e.g., the Hero 100 is similar to the Parker 51 and of course, the Hero 359 is clearly modelled after the Lamy Safari.

Why would or how could a company profit by cloning another pen that costs approx. $25-30? Well, readers with a business background might recognize the source of Hero Pen’s competitive advantage as cost leadership, i.e., winning market share by appealing to cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. Cost leadership is achieved by having the lowest prices in the target market segment, or at least the lowest price to value ratio (price compared to what customers receive). If a company is to be profitable, with a high return on investment while offering the lowest price, the company must be able to operate at a lower cost than its competitors.

A manufacturer like Hero Pen must produce high volumes of output such that fixed costs are spread over a larger number of units, resulting in a lower unit cost. Mass production becomes both a strategy and an end in itself. Higher levels of output both require and result in high market share, and create an entry barrier to potential competitors, who may be unable to achieve the scale necessary to match the firms low costs and prices.

According to the Shanghai Daily, the Lamy Safari is very popular in China but is too pricey for many local customers.  Thus, acting like a good capitalist, Hero decided to produce the pen because it received many requests and saw the market demand.  While Lamy is quite aware of the Hero 359, Hero is of the view that the exterior design patent right of Lamy’s Safari series are protected for only 10 years in China and has expired.

So much for the business lecture, how does the Hero 359 compare to the Lamy Safari? First, the Hero comes in a reusable plastic case along with a converter and a package of cartridges. The Safari generally comes in a cardboard box with 1 cartridge – and the converter is extra, adding anywhere from $5-10!


The 359 comes in 5 “Summer” colours – Black, Apple Green, Yellow, Royal Blue and Purple, as can be seen in the large picture at the top of this post.


The two pens are basically the same size, length, and weight; however, the parts are not interchangeable between them, e.g.,  you can’t swap caps.


There are a number of design differences – the Hero flower symbol replaces the familiar X at the top of the Safari cap, the clips on the 359s are all stainless steel vs. coloured clips on certain Safaris, and the  359 is almost entirely round but for one flat section while the Safari has two flat and two round sections.

Our examination of a number of Hero 359s, it is clear that the manufacturing quality is inferior to the Safari but it is debatable whether most users would notice or even care?

Finally, the initial impressions of our members were that they were very pleased with the writing performance of the 359; in fact, most were surprised at the quality of the writing experience relative to the cost of the pen.  Is it a Safari – no.  Nevertheless, the Hero 359 is perfect if you need to save a bit of money, want a pen for your children to practice with or for use in situations where the pen might get broken or lost.

P.S.  As as been pointed out in the Comments below from several readers, Hero now seems to be offering a similar roller ball pen and also a fountain pen and roller ball pen kit that consists of a fountain pen and a roller ball pen section that is interchangeable with the fountain pen section.  This development is not terribly surprising.  From a cosmetic perspective, the 359 roller ball has an ink window in its barrel, just like the fountain pen – the Safari fountain pen has an ink window but the roller ball does not.

It has also been noted that international size cartridges do not fit the Hero 359; however, the 359 does appear to accept Parker and Aurora cartridges.  On the other hand, the cartridges that come with the 359 do not work with Parker pens.

P.S.S.  I had forgot to mention the translation of the label on the Hero 359 fountain pen case which is “Here’s the label translated in full. There are six lines of text, from top to bottom:

Hero [logo] HERO
Telephone number to call: 021-62499300/4008881861
or send text message 700 to 12113
Peel off the veneer, differentiate genuine from counterfeit (emphasis added)
Shanghai Hero Fountain Pen Factory Lishui Co., Ltd.

How ironic – Hero wants you to check the pen carefully to ensure that it is not a counterfeit!!

Iconic Pens

The theme for our Saturday, October 24, 2011 meeting was “Iconic Fountain Pens”.   

What makes an item, such as a pen, iconic?  When most of us hear the word “iconic” we think of people, places or things that are famous, well-known, widely-known, celebrated, renowned, fabled, legendary, notorious, infamous, illustrious,  or perhaps even “the one”.  At least, those are some of the words that come to mind when I think of something that is “iconic”.  

The theme for this week was for our members to share their thoughts on those fountain pens that were icons from their perspective as well as the reason(s) for their selections.  We asked them to think about whether it was a popular or well-known pen?  Was it something to do with the pen’s design or looks?  Maybe it revolutionized the look, function of pens or even how pens write?  Has it developed a bit of a cult following?  Perhaps it is not famous but infamous?  Is it inexpensive or does it cost a small fortune?  Was it made by one of the “iconic” brands or do you have trouble pronouncing or even remembering its brand?  

If you were to build a collection of pens based on an “iconic” theme, what would you consider to be the “must-have” pens?  These hypothetical exercises are great – there are no limits, e.g., you are not restricted to modern or vintage pens, etc.  You don’t have to own the pen, have ever owned the pen or even want to own the pen!  Heck, you don’t even have to have any money!  Although, I don’t want to suggest that a pen’s cost necessarily influences its status as an icon.  I can think of very expensive pens that I would not be surprised if many thought of them as an icon, or conversely, others thinking of one of any number of inexpensive (dare I say, “cheap”?) pens that could easily fit the bill, e.g., Lamy Safari. 

Enough of my dribble, here are several groups of pens (with photos) that different members of the LPC view as being iconic and why:


1. Sheaffer Balance. 1930s. The Balance began the tradition of streamlining the shape of pens with tapered caps and barrel ends, along with the use of plastics in colours not seen before. 

2. Parker Vacumatic.  1930s. Striped plastics, ink stored right in the barrel rather than a sac, and an “interesting” filling system – the Vac is still what I think of when I think of vintage pens. 

3.  Parker “51”.  1940’s. A hooded nib. “Writes Dry with Wet Ink” to quote the advertising of the day.  Introduced in 1939 and in production until 1972, the Parker “51” sold in the millions and is of the most successful fountain pens of all time. 

4.  Sheaffer Snorkel.  1950’s. The Sheaffer Triumph nib (also known as the wrap around nib or conical nib) was continued on the Snorkel filler.  One of the coolest and most complicated of the filling systems, the Snorkel was made in a multitude of colours and finishes. 

5.  Sheaffer Imperial/Lifetime.  1960’s. I don’t have a Sheaffer Pen For Men (PFM) so I am including my 1963 Lifetime with the famous inlaid nib.  The PFM introduced the now iconic inlaid nib that Sheaffer continues to use on their pens to this day.  The Imperial, Targa, Intrigue and Valor models all have the inlaid nib. 

6.  Parker 75 in Sterling Silver cisele pattern.  1960’s. A classy looking pen.  I am still waiting to see one on the TV series “Mad Men”. 

7.  Lamy Safari.  1980’s. The Safari was first introduced in 1980 and hasn’t changed in 30 years.  A great starter or school pen that is available in an array of colours and nib sizes.

 Another member’s group of “Iconic Pens”:
  1. Aurora 88.  An elegant Italian design that functions perfectly and has a hidden cache of ink, if needed.
  2. Sheaffer Targa.  Simplicity and variety.  One could spend a lifetime collecting these classic fountain pens with the inlaid nib.  Just check out one of the best pen sites on the internet –
  3. Pilot/Namiki Vanishing Point.  Many people think this pen has a cult following but I disagree.  How many people do you know that own at least one Vanishing Point?  I would not be surprised if 3 out of 4 pen owners have one – that’s not a cult, that’s a club!
  4. Delta Dolce Vita.  Ah, the sweet life!  The first time I saw this pen I thought it was a bit much, I mean, who has the nerve to use a bright orange pen like this, especially a conservative business man like me.  It did not take too much longer before I owned one.  Actually, I have the double desk set as well!
  5. Conklin Crescent Filler.  Even non-pen people know this pen, it’s the one that Mark Twain uses – because it won’t roll off of a table.
  6. Lamy 2000.  A wonderful example of design and functionality. A simple design, the pen is made of black makrolon and is a piston filler, holding a ton of ink.  The flagship pen of LAMY.
  7. OMAS 360.  The non-conformist’s fountain pen because of its unconventional triangulated form.  It’s the type of pen that you either love or hate.  I happen to love it.  Unfortunately, OMAS screwed up its original design when it redesigned its line of pens.  If you want one of these, get the older “vintage” model.
  8. Pelikan M800 Souverän.   I loved this fountain pen from the very first time I saw its green striped barrel at Sleuth & Statesman in Toronto.  While I actually bought the black-blue model with silver trim first, I just had to have the original black-green model with gold trim.  In my mind, the green striped barrel makes it the quintessential fountain pen!
  9. Parker Duofold.  Not a big surprise that the Duofold is on this list, although most people would probably cite the vintage “Big Red” model.  Most people would put the Big Red as one of a dozen or so pens in a core collection of pens.  I like the blue ones myself, especially this remake of the “True Blue”.
  10. Waterman Edson.  A legendary and elegant pen.
  11. Conway Stewart #28 “Cracked Ice”.  Colourful plastics have been a signature of Conway Stewart.  The names of many of these colours, such as this one in Cracked Ice, have been adopted by collectors over the years. Other personal favourites include Reverse Cracked Ice and Tiger Eye.  Truth be told, my favourite models are #27 and #60 – I just grabbed the first Cracked Ice that I came across so please forgive my oversight!

 One more member’s quartet of Icons:

From top to bottom:

  1. Parker Vacumatic. Hey, it’s a Vacumatic, what more is there to say?
  2. Sheaffer Autograph.  The Autograph has a much wider cap band than the Sheaffer Signature and used to be one of their most expensive models.  It has the clip and the cap band made out of solid 14K gold. In fact, you could send the pen to Sheaffer along with your signature and they would engrave it on the cap band. This cap band has yet to be engraved.
  3. Esterbrook.  A classic double jewel J (full sized).
  4. Parker 51.  This aerometric filler with gold filled cap is Cocoa in colour, while not as rare as Nassau Green or Plum, is fairly uncommon.

A different view of the same quartet: 

And finally, the best part of every pen club meeting – writing with someone else’s iconic pen – in this case, a Parker 65 Flighter! 
Maybe you agree with these selections, maybe you have your own views.  We would love to hear from you!  Let us know what your iconic pen is and why?

Birthday Pens

I have gathered a smattering of birth years of LPC members and their related birthday pens, i.e., notable pens, etc… that were introduced at that time.  My reference source for this information is The Chronicle of the Fountain Pen, Stories within a Story, By Joao Pavao Martins, Luiz Leite, and Antonio Gagean.  This book was published in 2007 and is a terrific book for this particular purpose. Each chapter is organized in a chronological manner and includes a time line showing the main historical events around that time together with the models introduced by each manufacturer.  Maja of the Vancouver Pen Club was also kind enough to mention that Richard’s Pens has a similar birthday pen time line here.

I have also taken pictures of these pens from my collection (where I have them) and you will notice that these pictures are not nearly the quality as Rick’s picture of his Parker 75.

Year – Manufacturer/Model

1929 – Pelikan 100, Sheaffer Balance & Waterman Patrician

Pelikan 100
Sheaffer Balance

1931 – Sheaffer launched the Feathertouch nib

1939 – Parker Duofold Geometric (Toothbrush)

Sheaffer Geometric Duofold aka Toothbrush

1940 – Parker Striped Duofold

Striped Duofolds

1941 – Parker 51

Parker 51

1952 – Sheaffer Snorkel

1962 – Parker Very Personal (VP)

1964/1965 – Parker 75 Sterling Silver Cross Hatch or Ciselé pattern

Rick's Parker 75 Cisele

1973/1974 – Montblanc revives Meisterstück 146

Montblanc Meisterstuck 146

1978 – Sheaffer Targa lacquer models (known as Laqué)

Sheaffer Targa Laque Blue Moire Classic

1985 – Waterman Man 200 (a slimmer model of the Man 100)

Waterman Man 200 Rhapsody Orange/Brown Ripple

So, what is your birthday pen?  Tell us, we’d love to know!

What is Your Perfect Pen and Why?

By LPC member Rafal

From time to time we suggest and pick particular themes for our meetings. Those themes have to only loosely be related to pens, inks and papers. The theme for April 3, 2010 was for each member to bring the pen from his/her collection that they would consider the “perfect” pen (for him or her) right now and explain why they chose that particular pen.

There was a strong suspicion that the idea of a “perfect pen” would mean many different things to many different people but some suggested selection criteria included:

– How the pen fits them?
– How the nib matches their preference for most of their writing
(smoothness level, flow rate, stiffness, and point size/shape)?
– How durable is the construction?

– How it matches their esthetic tastes?
– How easy it is to fill and how it matches their ink capacity requirements?

We thought that this exercise might reveal a few interesting observations including:

– The “perfect” pen for someone might not be their most favourite pen;
– There might be a lot of variety in the pens selected by the group or there may be
some similarities; and

– We might even find that there are some repetitions.

This turned out to be a pretty interesting topic of discussion and here are the pens each member brought (along with the reasons for their choice) and a slide show  of those perfect pens:

Rick: Parker 75 Cisele
– Size / weight just right
– Dry writing wine nib –  just likes Rick likes
– Cartridge capability – great for travel
– Classic design

John: Waterman Edson
– Perfect size
– Broad nib – pretty much the only nib for John
– Very pretty  – navy blue color with gold trim
– Sentimental value – it was a gift from John’s employer for 25 years of service
– Does not have a vacumatic filling mechanism 😉

Mike: Tibaldi Iride
– It’s the pen that David wants more than any other from his collection but can’t have it.

Dan: Sheaffer 300
– Has a nice heft
– Spring loaded clip
– Durable

David: Modern Aurora 88 (large) with a stub nib
– Black with silver trim
– Size / feel
– Piston filler
– Great nib
– Classic, elegant design
– Italian pen

Doug: Delta 20th Anniversary
– Feel in hand
– Barrel shape is smooth and flowing
– Ink flow on the wet side
– Nib is ‘right’ – It’s neither fine or medium or broad, it is just right.
– Colour – Orange Black
– Filling system – Vintage classic (lever)
– Construction – Screw-on cap (when posted to end of barrel). At first he thought it was a hassle and stupid. Now everything lines up. Cap never falls off.
– A larger pen, yet again, body flow and colour… Writing for hours…
– Gold nib, and it has some flex
– Classic design

Marie: Sheaffer 300
– Size
– Nice to write with
– Colour
– Durability

Stan: Waterman 100 Year Pen
– Perfect flexible nib – almost calligraphic.
– Lends itself very well to Stan’s style of writing

Patrick: Parker 51 Slender
– Matches his jacket
– Perfect weight / balance posted and not posted
– Awesomeness,
– Classic
– Hooded nib design
– Nice nib
– Discrete

Ben:Waterman Expert II
– Colour – light blue
– Dependable
– Reliable
– Flows smoothly
– Can be used anytime (always ready to write)

Rafal: Parker 51 Aerometric
– Perfect Size
– Smooth, wet XF nib
– Elegant styling
– Very durable and easy to service

After everyone’s choices were revealed, a few things became apparent:
– Out of 11 pens, Waterman and Parker were picked most often [3 times each (27%)/6 out of the 11 in total (55%)];
– Out of modern pens, Sheaffer 300 was picked twice (67%) and out of vintage
pens Parker 51 was picked twice (67%);
– 4 pens were vintage (36%) and 7 were modern (64%);
– The cartridge/converter filling system was picked most often [5 times (45%)];
– The pens picked were either American or Italian brands;
– Surprisingly, there were no German or Japanese pens picked; and,
– The nib/writing characteristics was used as a criteria by 9 out of
11 participants (82%).

It would be interesting to compare the results of this exercise if these same question was asked a year from now.

We’d love to hear what your perfect pen is and why?  Maybe you think the same as some of our members or maybe something completely different.  Let us know!

My First Fountain Pens

Pens that preceded serious collecting

By LPC member David


y first memory of writing with a fountain pen goes back to my pre-primary school, Chelmsford School in Durban, South Africa where as an 8 year old in what we then called Standard 1 (Grade 3), we were to taught to write with a fountain pen. Sadly, I don’t remember the details of the pen, except that it was not a dip pen. While those memories have faded, a small spark was created.

The first pen that I ever owned was a Parker 45 Flighter, the stainless steel super-stream-lined classic given to me by family friends when I was 13 years old. This turned out to be a most appropriate first pen for me, as the Parker 45 and I share birth years, give or take a year. I loved this pen and used it often over my high school and university years, and beyond. This pen still writes as well as it ever did with its smooth medium nib, and like many 45s, the plastic section long ago developed the characteristic bumpy indents caused by the clutch rings of the pen’s cap. These days, I no longer use this pen, preferring others, but it still holds an important place in my collection, where it has been joined by a number of 45 cousins.

When I was in my late teenage years and heading off to university, my father gave me his black aerometric Parker 51, personally inscribed with his name. At that time, he no longer used a fountain pen and I was delighted with this 2nd addition to, what I did not know then was, my “collection”. This pen, with its simple lustraloy cap was and is a classic, and kindled my love of 51s. I never used the pen very much because it had a fine and scratchy nib. Then, living in Canada, I eventually sent it off to Fountain Pen Hospital to get a new medium nib installed, which transformed the pen into a usable instrument. Subsequently, the pen visited John Mottishaw who fitted it with a stub nib, a transformation which made it an even more usable pen.

My father was not the only 51-owner in my immediate family. My mother, presently a few weeks short of her 90th birthday, has been doing all of her daily writing with her beloved burgundy aerometric 51 (with gold-filled cap), for over 60 years. And for over 30 years now, I (and my brother) have received a weekly letter from her, penned with no other pen than this burgundy 51 filled with Parker blue ink. One day, I hope to own this pen, something with which my mother concurs, although as she has said, “hopefully not in the near future”.

Prior to starting to collect fountain pens seriously in 2008, three other fountain pens joined my infantile collection. Sometime between 1997 and 1999, I made my first Ebay purchase in the form of a green and gold striped Parker Duofold Junior from 1946; I am not sure what made me buy this pen as I was not “collecting” fountain pens then, but presumably “collecting” was then in its embryonic and inevitable state.

In 1999, I was given a beautiful white swirled Marlen Shuttle with sterling silver cap by friends when visiting them in Phoenix.

Following this, there was a brief dalliance with an orange Rotring Core purchased from the Peel Pen Store, until the collecting hobby was born formally in 2008.

“First” Fountain Pens

The theme for our FIRST meeting of the New Year was… your “first” fountain pen (FP).  This could mean the very “first” FP you owned (however acquired), the “first” FP you purchased as an adult, or it could mean the “first” FP you chose as a collector, after becoming “hooked” on this hobby.  The notion of “first” in “first” FP was limited only by our small brains.

One of our most distinguished members wrote the following about his “first” FP:

I still have it and it is still one of my most trusty workhorses.  No sequestering it away in a glass case, it is usually stabled in my shirt pocket next to my heart.  In the same fashion as many an infantryman (so I have read) has had his life saved by a musket embedded in his trusty bible, I would expect a bullet aimed at my heart to be deflected by my loyal Sheaffer.

No matter that it has long since destroyed its cap (I have it carefully stored so that when technology advances sufficiently I or a descendent will restore it), I fitted it out with a beautiful classic black one, that fits perfectly.  Indeed, I would go so far as to say that it looks rather more aristocratic than the original.
My Uncle Phil gave it to me when I started high school and I have been training it ever since.  It has learned to respond to my every touch in a way that can only be achieved over a lifetime.  I would guess that if all I ever wrote with this pen was stretched out in a continuous line it would reach from here to the sun!  It is too late for me to be ever able to train another although I do continue to explore vintage pens in the (probably vain) hope that some literate connoisseur may have had a similar relationship resulting in a perfectly molded writing instrument.

I will bring it to the next meeting of the LPC and if you swear to treat it with appropriate tenderness and respect I may even let you write a couple of words.

I don’t think you will find it too hard to pick out this “hybrid” Sheaffer in the picture that follows below!

As for me, I brought three “first” FPs to our meeting.  My very “first” FP, a tortoise Waterman Laureat that I purchased to sign my name on my firm’s correspondence (I used Waterman Florida Blue ink, of course!).  Next, I brought the “first” FP that I purchased online, from Levenger, a beautiful blue Visconti Pericles.  Both the Laureat and Pericles are pictured below.  Last, I brought the “first” vintage FP that I purchased, under the direction of a certain LPC member – a red Parker Duofold Streamline Senior.

Here is a picture of the “first” FPs that were shared at our meeting on January 2, 2010.  From left to right, they are as follows:

  1. Parker 51 Special – the “first” FP given by a daughter to her father (very Special indeed!),
  2. Uncle Phil’s Sheaffer – as described above,
  3. Parker Slimfold – the “first” (and only) FP used by a member’s mother,
  4. Parker 75,
  5. Esterbrook,
  6. Sheaffer Balance in carmine red,
  7. Sheaffer Snorkel,
  8. Parker Duofold Jr.,
  9. Waterman Laureat – as described above, and
  10. Visconti Pericles – as described above.

Let us know about your “first” FP!

Some Recent Repair Q&As

Here are a couple of recent repair Q&As exchanged by club members:

QuestionEvery now and then I seem to get a little bit of paper stuck in one of my fountain pen nibs when I’m writing. I was wondering if anyone else has that happen and any suggestions for cleaning it off.

Answer – I did a bit of research and thinking (based on my own experience) regarding the “paper” in your nib problem.  I think there are a number of possible explanations as set out below:

  • How hard do you press on the nib – if it happens on all different types of paper, try lightening up your pressure, let the nib glide along the surface of the paper.
  • Check the nib – if the nib is aligned well and smooth, the paper fibers should not get stuck.  So check the nib alignment first – is the slit off-center?  Then with a loupe, check for rough spots, craters, or sharp points on the tipping – it should be smooth and shiny all around – and then check to see whether the inside of the tines have a sharp edge (if so, they may need to be smoothed – don’t try this yourself unless you know what you are doing!).
  • If your pressure and nib are fine, you should check the nature and quality of paper that you use – crappy or cheap paper will fiber up and also the coating on “coated” paper specifically for use with Ink jet printers will eventually begin to “clog” the nib.
  • It could also be your writing style – some nibs will simply not tolerate significant variations from “standard” writing angles. If you have a writing style other than the typical right handed 50 degree angle, the nib may never work for you properly and needs to be swapped.

You could use a number of items – a piece of brass shim stock (0.002″ thick, available in hardware stores, Lee Valley, etc…), a piece of overhead transparency, a piece of film – all nicely washed in detergent – to floss the nib.


QuestionDo you have any suggestions on how to remove a jewel from a Parker cap (Vacumatic and Parker 51)?  I have a few that have loose clips and find it very hard to remove the jewel to tighten the clip.  What tools do you use?

Answer – Well, I’ve heard of a few things to try but didn’t have any success on the “51” I had with a loose clip.  I think someone had set the jewel with some sort of adhesive; I probably should have tried a little gentle heat before attacking the cap jewel.  In the end, after recognizing my own shortcomings, I had John Culmer fix it up for me – he had to break the old jewel and replace it with another.
Here’s what I tried for removing a Parker cap jewel:

  • Slide a piece of a drinking straw over the clip to keep it from scratching the cap as it turns.
  • Try a soft pencil eraser.  Put the eraser on your table or bench and press the cap jewel into the eraser and turn the cap.   The idea is that the soft eraser grips the jewel and allows you to turn it out.
  • Try some sticky tack/blu-tack used for hanging papers or posters to a wall.  Put a piece of sticky tack/blu-tack into the freezer for a few minutes to firm it up and then press the cap jewel into the sticky tack/blu-tack and turn the cap.
  • Here is what “The Complete Guide To Repair & Restoration” by Frank Dubiel aka “Da Book” says about Parker caps:
    • “The Parker jewel must come off for clip removal.  In theory the jewel is pressed firmly against a rubber surface which is supposed to grip the jewel as the cap is turned.  The jewel may be in too tight.  Heat will help.  An ultrasonic cleaning may help.  Using super glue or contact cement to glue the jewel to a rubber pad and twisting it loose once dry will usually work at the risk of damage to the jewel.”